Throughout human history people have been striving to find mental peace, wholeness and comfort within our own skulls. This seeking is nothing new, and is displayed in both spirituality and madness. What is is that we are seeking, and why is it so important?
In 1921, Carl Jung first used the term “individuation” to describe a process that individuals go though to attain wholeness, or balance of mind. Carl Jung suggested that this balance can only be attained when one is able to integrate their unconscious mind, into their conscious mind. Jung believed the process of Individuation to be natural, and is in constant development throughout one’s life. Although Individuation is a natural process, it can be stunted by a variety of influences.
In this article, we will explore the Jungian construct of mind, and then dive into what individuation is, how it can be done, and what the benefits of attaining an individuated mind are. We will also take a look at some of the negatives, or neurosis, of the mind that has not been successfully individuated.
Before we explore the concept of individuation, it is important to understand Carl Jung’s model of the psyche.
Carl Jung believed that the psyche (whole-mind) is composed of various parts that work to balance themselves out. Jung often represented the psyche as a quaternity, as pictured in his mandala illustration above. Although composed of many parts, the fundamentals of the psyche’s composition can be seen here:
Self: Carl Jung considered the self to be the core of our personality, in both its unconscious and conscious aspects, and also in its potential and actual forms. Jung believed that the Self originates from an innate dynamic structure which integrates our drives, and leads to both archetypal psychological experiences and instinctual behavioral actions.
Ego: Carl Jung viewed the Ego as the center point within the field of consciousness (that which contains our continued sense of personal identity). Jung believed the ego to be the organizer of our feelings, sensations, thoughts and intuitions, and also has access to memories that are not repressed. The ego is the bearer of personality and exists at the junction between our internal and external worlds.
Persona: The Persona is most simply understood as the “mask” that we present to society, that is both socially acceptable and self-deemed as socially respectable. The origin of this word comes from the greek actors of antiquity.
Carl Jung considered the Persona to be the “packaging of the ego” or the public relations manager. The Persona is critical in everyday functioning, and may be seen as a good reflection of the ego qualities that hide behind it.
Collective Unconscious: The Collective Unconscios is one of the most unique and distinctive features of Carl Jung’s Psychology. Jung had the idea that the individual personality is to some extend based on a “Collective Unconscious” which is like a universal mind that exists throughout all people, throughout time.
The Collective Unconscious can be seen at play in instinctual drives and universal motivators for behavior. Carl Jung believed that the personality exists completely at birth, and is slowly uncovered, or realized, throughout an individual’s life.
Shadow: Carl Jung understood that the psyche is composed of paradoxes, primarily that of light and dark. To Jung, the Shadow represented the hidden part of our psyches that we tend to keep hidden from the world (aspect of the mind that the Ego would reject from representation by the Persona). The Shadow is typically “unconscious” and these drives and ideas that exist here are typically repressed away from the conscious mind. Within the Shadow are things such as repression of natural drives (sex, anger, appearing certain ways).
Carl Jung believed that the Shadow is an ever-present part of the psyche, and things cannot be successfully “repressed away.” Thus, these psychological drives exist in the darkness of the mind away from conscious view, however they do still exert strong influence over the psyche.
For a detailed guide on the Shadow, Read this article.
Anima/Animus: The Anima and Animus represent the masculine and feminine personality traits that exist in both males and females. For them man, his feminine characteristics would be represented by the Anima Archetype, and for the woman, her masculine characteristics would be represented by the Animus Archetype. As mentioned before, Carl Jung believed that there are paradoxes and opposites that exist within the psyche, and the Anima/Animus are perfect examples of that.
You can learn more about the 5 Major Jungian Archetypes here.
What is Individuation?
Carl Jung saw Individuation as a process of self-realization, or the mechanism in which someone grows into their full self (he sometimes described this as an acorn growing into a tree). This process of Individuation takes place within the interplay between opposites that compose the psyche (conscious and unconscious, persona and shadow, anima and animus), and ultimately comes down to the process in which the unconscious becomes conscious. Successful Individuation offers many benefits and as Jung believed, is the ultimate goal of the developing psyche.
Individuation means becoming an “individual,” and, in so far as “individuality” embraces our innermost, last, and incomparable uniqueness, it also implies becoming one’s own self. We could therefore translate individuation as “coming to selfhood” or “self-realization.Carl Jung, The Collected Works of CG Jung, Vol 7
The process of Individuation is a natural process, although it can be stimulated by different therapies, one being shadow work. The idea behind stimulating Individuation could be that a psyche that fails to integrate may be stuck on a limiting belief or fear- which produces negative symptoms (anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, obsessive disorders, etc). Once these barriers are overcome, the individual would continue forward in their path toward Individuation and unlock its benefits.
Although not always mentioned directly, traces of Carl Jung’s idea of Individuation can be seen throughout his works.
What happens in lack of Individuation
Stunted Individuation can lead to a wide variety of neurosis, and psychosomatic illnesses. The causal factor for stunted individuation is typically repression of the shadow, and a failure to properly integrate opposing sides of the psyche (conscious and unconscious, persona and shadow, anima and animus). Symptoms of student individuation can occur as follows
- Low Self Esteem
- Severe Cognitive Dissonance
- Lack of Motivation
- Variety of Neurosis; schizophrenia, compulsive disorders, fear disorders
- Psychosomatic Illnesses can manifest in many ways
- Unusual/off-putting behavior
- General lack of joy in life
How to Promote Individuation
Dream Work: Dream work is a healthy way to begin mapping out your own psyche. Carl Jung believed that dreams are a window to the unconscious, and provide you with valuable insights. A simple practice of dream work would be to keep a dream journal next to your bed, and do your best to record dreams every morning. This article covers the methods and benefits of dream work, with Psychologist, Len Worley.
Meditation: Meditation is simple, yet very challenging. This practice will allow you to really acquaint yourself with your psyche. Here is a simple guide on how to get started.
Self-Reflection: Simply take an hour or two to lay down with your eyes closed. During this time, do your best to “review your life” and trace it from your earliest years. Doing this will help unlock repressed memories and feelings, and can provide you with very helpful insight.
The way is not without danger. Everything good is costly, and the development of the personality is one of the most costly of all things.Carl Jung
Benefits of Individuation & Conclusion
Carl Jung’s idea of Individuation was a critical development in the history of psychology, and serves to represent the ultimate goal of the developing psyche. Carl Jung believed that the mind is composed of various opposing forces, that are all included in the “whole” of the psyche. The process of Individuation is what allows an individual to embrace themselves as a whole, and integrate all of the opposing sides of the mind into unity, rather than at odds.
Successful Individuation will ultimately lead to more life satisfaction, deeper meaning, and more richness in relationship with the self. For future Carl Jung content, please be sure to subscribe to Arts of Thought in the corner below.
Christ, A Symbol of the Self. Carl G. Jung
Interview with Dr Carl Jung 1957 Enhanced Audio
Carl Jung, The Collected Works of CG Jung, Vol 7